By Samuel Stein
Occupy Wall Street is growing. What started on September 17th as an encampment of hundreds in one small park has turned global. On October 15th, demonstrations were held in 1,500 cities in 82 countries. In New York City, our numbers are growing, and momentum is building to expand to more sites around the city. As a formally leaderless movement without explicit demands, we are defined primarily by the spaces we create. What do our choices of venues say about our politics, our critique and our vision? The choice of our next sites will communicate more to the world than any simple list of demands ever could.
We began our movement in Liberty Plaza, a “Privately Owned Public Space.” The park was created through a mechanism added to the New York City zoning code in 1961. The 1961 revisions were full of new ways to shape development in the city, prefaced on the idea that zoning could be used to shape the city’s social as well as spatial patterns. One of these planning innovations, the “density bonus,” allows developers to build higher than would otherwise be permitted if they create an open space for public use. The spaces could be inside a building’s lobby, or outside on land owned by the developer. While some of these plazas supported active street life, many were poorly designed and underutilized, and became empty caverns among skyscrapers. Left urbanists have largely written off the program as a giveaway to developers and a retrenchment of the state as planner and provider of open spaces.
Occupy Wall Street’s reclamation of Liberty Plaza turns this logic on its head. What was once seen as a boon to real estate capital is now a thorn in its side. Our presence signals to the city and to real estate capital that social movements will use any and all spaces available to the public, regardless of its formal ownership. Claiming a privately owned public space as our initial home base created a posture for the movement that was critical of both capital and the state, and especially hostile to its collusion.